NRPA Measuring Impact of Park & Rec

1 Measuring the Economic Impact of Park and Recreation Services www.NRPA.org National Recreation and Park Association © 2010 All Rights Reserved Table of Contents Executive Summary. 3 Chapter 1. 5 Why Economic Impact Studies Are a Key to a Viable Future . 5 The Rationale for Economic Impact Studies. 5 The Central Role of Economic Impact in the Formative Era of Park Development. 9 The Central Role of Economics in Launching Public Recreation. 11 Positioning Park and Recreation Agencies as Engines of Tourism . 11 Using Economic Impact Studies to Reposition the Field . 15 References . 19 Chapter 2. 20 The Fundamental Principles of Economic Impact Studies . 20 Accurate Participation Numbers. 21 Exclusion of Local Residents. 22 Spurious Rationales. 24 The Deflected Impact Caveat. 25 Inappropriate Aggregation . 25 Exclusion of Time-Switchers and Casuals. 27 Differentiating Economic Impact and Economic Significance Studies. 27 References . 30 Chapter 3. 31 Collecting Visitors’ Expenditure Information . 31 Chapter 4. 37 Use and Abuse of Multipliers. 37 The Multiplier Concept . 37 Constituent Elements of a Multiplier . 39 Operationalization of the Multiplier . 40 Capture Rates. 41 The Influence of a Community’s Size and Business Structure on Multipliers. 43 Interpreting Sales and Income Multipliers. 45 Interpreting Employment Multipliers. 46

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