Shade Planning for Schools

COVER: Shade Planning for America's Schools 1
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 4
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS MANUAL? 6
CHAPTER ONE 11
WHAT IS UV RADIATION? 12
What Are the Factors That Affect UV Radiation Levels? 12
What Are Direct and Indirect UV Radiation? 13
How Is UV Radiation Measured? 14
What Are the Health Effects of Exposure to UV Radiation? 14
Where Can I Find More Information? 16
INFORMATION ON SKIN CANCER AND ITS PREVENTION 17
SUN SAFETY CURRICULA 18
CHAPTER TWO 21
STRATEGIES FOR PROVIDING SHADE 22
Solid Roof Structures 22
Shade Cloth Structures 23
Natural Shade 24
Where Can I Find More Information? 25
WILDLIFE HABITAT CREATION 26
RESOURCES FOR NATURAL SHADE SOLUTIONS 27
CHAPTER THREE 31
PLANNING FOR SHADE 32
The Shade Planning Team 32
The Shade Audit 32
Shade Design 35
Funding 35
Where Can I Find More Information? 35
RESOURCES FOR SHADE PLANNING TEAMS 36
CHAPTER FOUR 37
CASE STUDIES 38
Collier County, Florida 38
Pinellas County, Florida 41
SHADE Foundation of America and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s SunWise School Program 43
CHAPTER FIVE 47
THE EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIP 48
The Sun’s Annual Path and the Creation of Shade 49
The Sun’s Daily Path and the Creation of Shade 50
The Earth’s Rotation and Revolution 51
Axis Tilt and Solar Radiation 52
Putting It All Together 52
Where Can I Find More Information? 54
CHAPTER SIX 55
HOW TO CONDUCT A SHADE AUDIT 56
Stakeholder Interviews 56
Interview Guides 56
Sample Questions for School Principals 57
Sample Questions for School Teachers 57
Sample Questions for Students 58
Sample Questions for Building Maintenance Engineers 59
Sample Questions for Neighbors 59
Behavioral Observations 60
Environmental Observations 60
Considering Potential Shade Strategies 62
The Shade Planning Matrix 62
Making Recommendations 63
ATTACHMENTS 65
Attachment A: BUILDING DESCRIPTION 66
Attachment B: TREE INVENTORY 67
Attachment C: SHADE PLANNING MATRIX 68
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